Photo: David Laughlin, Horticultural Student, Bugwood.org. If the tree bark damage goes less than 25 percent of the way around the tree, the tree will be fine and will survive without a problem, provided that the wound is treated and is not left open to disease. Dogwood Twig Borer (Oberea tripunctata) Larva. Wrapping the trunk, using duct tape, painting the wound, and nailing or using glue to keep the bark from peeling off any more is not going to help. Flowering dogwood (Cornus florida)is a small Maryland native tree with white or pink flower bracts in the spring, colorful foliage in the fall, and berries that support wildlife. Apply a fungicide during bud break to protect new flowers, twigs, and foliage. Adults emerge from dogwood trees around mid-May and continue throughout most of the summer. Eggs hatch at this time and tiny white crawlers settle on leaf veins. After their final molt, they lose the powdery covering and change color. Peeling bark on dogwoods may be the result of serious disease or it could be a natural condition in some species. Look for the crawlers near the old scale covers. The dogwood clubgall midge is responsible for spindle-shaped swellings near the tips of dogwood twigs. Large trees are seriously injured from dieback of branches and loss of large patches of bark over mined areas on the trunk. Heavy infestations of this scale may cause yellowing, wilting and eventually branch dieback. The larvae (young insects) resemble caterpillars and feed on the foliage of several species of dogwood and are most commonly seen on shrub dogwoods [e.g., silky dogwood (Cornus amomum), redosier dogwood (C. sericea)]. Numerous small shoots may grow from the trunk. There are two distinctive black dots just behind the head. Larger trees with ongoing infestations often develop rough, knotty areas on the trunk and large branches, and may lack vigor. Click HERE for more photos of tree damage. Certain trees are more susceptible to bark browsing, especially those with tender, moist foliage. Female calico scale insects are very conspicuous in May. Dogwood Borer Damage at the Base of Flowering Dogwood. Cottony Maple Scale (Pulvinaria innumerabilis). The tree belongs to the bean family. Be sure to thoroughly cover all of the branches. Dogwood Clubgall Midge. Upon hatching, the young caterpillar finds a suitable place to enter the tree such as a wound, scar, woody gall, or branch crotch. Signs of their presence include small holes in the trunk, shrunken or slightly distorted leaves and die-back of twigs and branches in the canopy of the tree, usually from the top of the crown moving downward. Photo: Terry S. Price, Georgia Forestry Commission, Bugwood.org. Treat Major Damage A very large area of torn bark, especially in the green cambium layer, interferes with the tree gaining water and nutrients. The mature larvae are yellowish with a shiny black head and black spots. If the tree bark damage goes from 25 percent to 50 percent, the tree will suffer some damage but most likely will survive. Keep the tree well watered during dry periods and make sure mulch is no thicker than several inches and keep away from the trunk. Some of the twigs may be dead above the gall, and the tree may be deformed. You don’t want to allow bugs to enter through wounds in the bark and damage the tree. Some of these trees will die as the weather becomes hot and dry. thanks/ernie, District of Columbia County The aboveground portions of flowering dogwood are readily damaged by fire because the thin bark allows fatal levels of heat to reach the cambium very quickly. American dogwood bark is still used today as medicine, but not very often. The adult beetle is 1/2 inch long, oval, flattened, greenish bronze above and brassy below. Yet, the dogwood bark has been used for its sweat-producing, narcotic, and analgesic properties since 1844. As the yellow-orange maggots grow, the tissue swells around them forming the characteristic gall. What You Can Do Keep a layer of mulch around the plant to keep the soil cool and moist, which in turn will help to keep the tree healthy. Post-fire recovery is generally more rapid after surface fires than after crown fires. The first evidence of the presence of the clubgall midge may be a wilted, deformed leaf. Question by reiderjennif July 7, 2010. Protect the health of your dogwood tree by not damaging the bark. They are found on twigs and branches. Refer to our pages on c. We embody the University's land-grant mission with a commitment to eliminate hunger, preserve our natural resources, improve quality of life, and empower the next generation through world-class education. Photo: Terry S. Price, Georgia Forestry Commission, Bugwood.org, The dogwood twig borer is a less serious pest of dogwood. The larvae of the borer enter the tree through openings in the bark and feed on the cambium layer of the tree. Kousa dogwood (C. kousa) and hybrids of kousa and native dogwood (C. florida) are resistant to anthracnose and decline and should be used to replace dying trees. Weidhass, VA Polytech Inst & State Univ, Bugwood.org The yellowish larva that hatches from the egg begins tunneling in the pith, boring down the center of the twig, occasionally making a series of holes to the surface through which it expels sawdust. Maintaining Your Newly-Planted Dogwood. Now that your dogwood is planted, it’s important to protect it while you wait for it to mature. REC, Western Maryland The larvae bore into the tree and feed in the phloem (tissues that move plant foods produced by leaves) and outer sapwood. Watch for opportunistic insects and diseases. Export, Pe. Heavy infestations may cause leaf yellowing, stunting, and dieback. When the dogwood borer moth emerges, the brown pupal skin is frequently left behind in the exit hole, indicating the presence of this pest. The newly hatched larvae, or maggots, work their way into the developing twig. ), European ash (Fraxinus excelsior), flowering cherries (Prunus spp. The dogwood tree is damaged by the feeding activity of the dogwood borer larva under the bark of the trunk and limbs. The adult is an elongate (5/8 inch long) beetle with long antennae. The flatheaded appletree borer attacks a wide variety of shade and fruit trees. District of Columbia, No pruning paint or sealer is recommended as it can interfere with the healing process. Vole damage . Photo: James Solomon, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org. I definitely will put a barrier around it to keep it protected from another critter attack.I have called around to different tree nurseries and getting different answers -- either leave it alone or spray it to seal it. They move onto the bark to overwinter. Calico scale and cottony maple scale are both soft scales and produce honeydew (a clear, sticky substance). Larvae of this insect feed underneath the bark, and can kill the tree. Depending on the age of the Kousa dogwood, the trees take on a different appearance. Bark Beetle Damage by Dustin Blakey / CC by 2.0. Mature larvae overwinter in cells in the outer wood and pupate in the spring. There is one generation each year. It most frequently attacks trees that are stressed or injured. The dogwood twig borer is a less serious pest of dogwood. Most flower and fruit, and have dazzling fall displays as the leaves change color. There is one generation each year. It is much easier to spray the trees for all of the scale insects listed in late winter to control the overwintering scales. There may be one or two generations a year. Dogwoods planted too deeply, inadequately watered during the first two years of establishment and drought periods, or physically wounded at the trunk (e.g., mower damage), are more susceptible to pest infestations. REC, Lower Eastern Shore There are several scale insects, such as calico scale, cottony maple scale, and oystershell scale, that can become pests on dogwood. Small, wet areas on the bark, dead branches, adventitious growth (water sprouts on trunk and large branches), or sloughing and cracking of bark can all be symptoms of dogwood borer attack. Dogwood clubgall midge – Club- or spindle-shaped galls appear near the growing tips of dogwood twigs. Examine the undersides of leaves for the flat, yellow, immature scales along the leaf veins. Upon hatching, the young larvae feed together and chew the leaf. This damage may lead to further stress factors as the exposed trunk is prone to insect infestation. Damage to trees and shrubs caused by mammals and birds is fairly easy to identify. Symptoms on dogwoods may also be caused by diseases or abiotic (environmental) factors. This is especially true for various borers (i.e. Knowing the species of your tree is crucial to deciding if a dogwood with peeling bark is in danger or if it is a normal occurrence. on tree leaves and needles. If an infestation is heavy, particularly on a young plant, the larvae may be sprayed with horticultural oil registered for landscape use. Do I let it repair itself or put something over it? It is essential that young trees receive adequate water during establishment. By mid-June, they die, shrivel, and turn brown. Small trees are often killed. Bark damage or cuts near the base of the trunk are often caused by lawn equipment damage, such as from lawn mowers or string trimmer hitting the trunk. If it is necessary to control high populations, apply a horticultural oil (2% summer rate) or insecticidal soap spray during the summer. It is about 3/8 inch long, blue-black with two yellow bands around the abdomen, and resembles a wasp. They will be found where honeydew and/or sooty mold (a fungus that grows on honeydew) are present. It would be appropriate for you to remove a small portion of the bark and inspect for entry/exit holes indicative of boring insects. Do I let it repair itself or put something over it? They are large (1/4 inch long), black and white-spotted and swollen. The adult beetle emerges from infested twigs in the spring and the female lays her eggs in healthy twigs. Best wishes with your dogwood. A dormant oil spray may be applied in late winter. It will feed just under the bark in the cambium layer. The dogwood sawfly is an occasional pest of dogwood. Heavy infestation can kill the plant. Crawlers are present in May. The dogwood larvae bore into the wood cambium. Dogwood borer – The bark is injured, with fine boring dust on the trunk and branches in late summer. Cut sections of bark and underlying wood (scions) in the winter with a utility knife from young branches on the same tree about 3/8 inch in diameter and the height of the bark damage's measurement plus 5 inches. Prune out heavily infested branches. Rake and destroy fallen leaves. Peeling bark on the trunk or near the base of branches is usually caused by borer infestation. These animals have different feeding preferences, so it is a good idea to first of all identify the problem. Other types of observed and reported tree damage Larvae are called flatheaded borers because of the enlarged, flattened area behind the small, black head. Adult sawflies, which resemble tiny wasps, emerge during late spring and early summer. New growth is covered with a fine, white, powdery coating, typically on the upper surfaces of the leaves. Tree protect themselves from decay organisms through a process called compartmentalization and callus tissue is part of that defense mechanism. Prune out and destroy the galls in summer before the maggots drop to the ground to pupate in the fall. They are found throughout the area where flowering dogwoods are grown. They lay eggs under bark plates or in bark crevices on the main trunk or larger branches. On dogwood, it can be a serious problem on young trees that are planted too deeply and on stressed, older trees. New growth will often come in spring, but then suddenly die as the roots starve. After the second molt, the larvae become covered with a white powdery material. Frequently damaged species include crabapples (Malus spp. Most attacks occur around basal wounds caused by lawn mowers and string trimmers. Ovisacs are white, cottony masses that contain eggs. Calico Scale (Eulecanium cerasorum), females. This beetle has yellow/tan wing covers with a black line down the center and along the margins. If it is necessary to control cottony maple scale, apply a horticultural oil (2% summer rate) or insecticidal soap spray during the summer. These mature larvae will wander about in search of an overwintering site, generally in soft or decaying wood. To monitor for this pest, look for tiny (1/8 inch long), oystershell shaped, and brown to gray scale covers on the bark of wilting or dead branches. Spores are spread by wind to surrounding dogwoo… Crawlers hatch in June and settle on leaves to feed. The second most common type of damage was indirect defoliation associated with wood boring insects and vascular diseases such as oak wilt, white pine blister rust, dogwood anthracnose, and beech bark disease. Sloughing of wood bark is an early symptom of attack. The adult is an elongate (5/8 inch long) beetle with long antennae. These immature scales turn yellow and feed on the leaves during the summer. Dogwood Borer (Synanthedon scitula) Adult. Sometimes referred to as the Chinese dogwood, this Asian cousin to our native flowering dogwood can be used as a specimen plant or in shrub borders. They do not settle on the leaves but stay to feed on the twigs and branches. Dogwood Sawfly (Macremphytus tarsatus) larvae. This beetle has yellow/tan wing covers with a black line down the center and along the margins. Ask an Expert is made up of groups and individual experts. Bark sloughing around wound on dogwood (Cornus) typical of damage from dogwood borer (Lepidoptera).J.A. There are two distinctive black dots just behind the head. The best prevention for this insect is to protect the trees from wounds. The bark, which is the primary source of therapeutic benefits, has an acrid and bitter taste that causes a burning sensation in the mouth. The larvae may be found boring into the base of these trees. Dogwood Borer Damage at the Base of Flowering Dogwood. By Mary Kay Malinoski, Principal Agent, University of Maryland Extension. Cut enough scions to place them about 2 inches apart around the damaged area. Infested parts appear swollen, knotty, calloused or gall-like. The adult midge is a small, delicate, brown fly. Infested twigs should be clipped off several inches below the girdled or infested portion and destroyed. The galled twigs and terminals die prematurely and flowering is reduced. There is only one generation each year, with the larva overwintering inside the twig. As the larva tunnels, the twig may break off or wilt behind it. As they grow, they will eat all of the leaf except the midrib. Apply according to the label instructions. Feeding is mostly confined to the burr knot but once the burr knot area is consumed, it moves to the adjacent areas. The Kousa dogwood is a handsome, small- to medium-sized tree reaching a mature height of 30 feet. Photo: Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org. The adults may be seen running over the bark of trees and fly when disturbed. You must be signed in before you can post questions or answers. Woodpeckers drill several different types of holes in trees. The dogwood borer makes irregular tunnels under the bark on the main stem and sometimes on the base of limbs. The adult midges emerge in May and the female deposits eggs in new terminal leaves. Spraying during the dormant season also lessens the impact on beneficial insects that are present during the spring and summer. Maintaining good tree health is the best way to prevent flatheaded appletree borer. Other symptoms include sawdust-like frass being pushed out of the burrows, and leaves turning red prematurely. bark damage to dogwood tree Asked May 30, 2015, 11:35 AM EDT Yesterday I found bark damage on my 15 year old dogwood -- from bottom of tree extending about 8 inches high, 2 to 3 inches across -- bark scraped or torn off. They are about the size of a pinhead and light-colored. There is one generation each year and immatures overwinter on the twigs. Symptoms on dogwoods may also be caused by diseases or abiotic (environmental) factors. This insect usually does not cause serious problems. Perennials. Young trees are frequently killed, and older ones are reduced in vitality, often leading to death. There is one generation each year. This scale is usually controlled by beneficial insects and generally does not require spraying. The full-grown caterpillar is white with a pale brown head, and about 5/8 inch long. This insect usually does not cause serious problems. 1 Response Splitting bark, especially on a dogwood, can be the result of several factors; mechanical damage, weather fluctuations, or insect invasion. Photo: James Solomon, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org. Wounds of this size need to be treated as soon as possible and should be watched carefully. Dogwoods are native ornamental trees. The dogwood borer (Synanthedon scitula; DWB) is a small clearwing moth native to eastern North America.In its larval stage DWB infests the trunks and branches of apple, dogwood, pecan, elm, hickory, and willow. A light infestation will cause little harm, but a heavy infestation can stunt a tree. During this time, ¼ inch long white ovisacs may be found on branches and twigs. Borers like dogwood trees, in part, due to their thin, easily injured bark, which borers penetrate and use as breeding space. Oysershell Scale (Lepidosaphes ulmi). How to fix bark loss on a Dogwood tree - Knowledgebase Question. A summer rate (2%) spray of horticultural oil may be used in summer, if necessary. Infected leaves exhibit marginal leaf scorch, dead patches, reddish discoloration, yellowing and premature defoliation. Refer to our pages on common dogwood diseases, abiotic problems, and tree care. Avoid planting these in unfenced areas. During the dormant season (when leaves have fallen from deciduous trees)  apply a horticultural oil (4% dormant rate) to control overwintering immature scales. Apple trees grown on dwarf rootstocks are more prone to DWB infestation; therefore DWB has become a more common pest as many growers have transitioned to smaller trees. 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